Obverse and reverse of copper alloy jetton
Krauwinckel rose and orb jetton

Most of the jettons recovered from James Fort are of the “rose and orb” type made by members of the Krauwinckel family. Four different Krauwinckel makers made “rose and orb” type jettons, including brothers Damianus and Hans (I) Krauwinckel, and Egidius and Hanns (II) Krauwinckel who were the sons of Damianus. So far, no jettons made by Damianus have been found at Jamestown. Only three made by Egidius, all of the Lion of St. Mark type, have been found. One “rose and orb” type jetton in the Jamestown collection was made by Hans Lauffer (1611-1632). One “rose and orb” type jetton in the Jamestown collection was made by Hans Lauffer (1611-1632) and one was made by one of the three jetton masters named Hans Schultes. It is unclear which Hans Schultes was the maker, but the jetton dates between 1553-1612.

The vast majority of “rose and orb” types found at Jamestown were made by Hans Krauwinckel (1562-1586) and his nephew of the same name (1586-1635) who both worked in Nuremberg, Germany. The obverse side depicts crowns and fleur de lis symbols around a central rose. The surrounding letters record the maker and the location where the jetton was made. The one above reads HANNS KRAVWINCKEL IN NVR. The uncle and nephew are differentiated by a second “n” in “Hanns” to represent Hans Krauwinckel the younger.

The reverse side of the “rose and orb” jettons depicts an imperial orb within a trilobe. The surrounding letters are often various verses from the Bible. The example above is inscribed GOTES SEGEN MACHT REICH (“God’s blessing brings riches”). Thirty-four jettons in the Jamestown collection have this phrase. Other phrases that are represented on jettons from Jamestown include the following:

GETRIVW HANDT KOMBT DURCH ALLE (“Truth succeeds over all”)

GLUCK BESCHERT IST VNGEWERT (“Fortune given is not guaranteed”)

GOTES REICH BLIBT EWICK (“God’s Kingdom remains eternal”)

GOTT ALLEIN DIE EERE SEI (“To God alone the glory”)

HEIT ROTT MORGEN DOTT (“Red today, dead tomorrow”)

VERBVM DOMINI MANET IN ETERN (“The Word of God remains eternal”)