Archaeologists have recovered over 100 iron bullet molds during excavations at Jamestown. These molds were used to manufacture lead shot that was used in contemporary 17th-century firearms such as matchlocks and pistols. Bullet molds are shaped like modern day pliers, but they terminate with a hollow, two-part ball. Molten lead was poured into the ball through a small opening, which when cooled and opened, resulted in a complete musket ball. The molds are not a standardized size because handmade gun barrel bores varied in size. Individual molds were handmade by gunsmiths to fit each firearm. Widely ranging variations in size are demonstrated by the thousands of lead shot recovered by archaeologists from James Fort. The large numbers of both lead shot and molds recovered from early fort-period contexts, including the First Well, the Factory, and the Soldiers’ Pits, highlight the colonists’ constant need to produce lead shot. Firearms were essential for hunting and protection during Jamestown’s occupation.