• Mussel Shell Beads

    Ribbed mussels, known as tshecomah, were abundant in the brackish estuarine marshes around Jamestown. It appears that rawrenock (mussel shell beads) were made by Indian women […]

  • Lead Cloth Seals

    Small leaden discs, known a cloth seals, were crimped onto finished fabrics in England by the manufacturer, the merchant, the quality control inspector, and the tax […]

  • Copper

    Copper sheet and copper scraps are among the most common finds that the archaeologists make in James Fort contexts. Many of these smaller pieces of copper […]

  • Globe Token

    In early modern Europe, when a coin’s value was based directly on its precious metal content, creating small change was no easy feat. Under Elizabeth I […]

  • Book Stamp

    Found in 2004, the purpose of this small lead object came to light with the help of Caroline Duroselle-Melish at the Folger Shakespeare Library. Although it […]